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Dogs are another animal often associated with jinn, especially black dogs. However, piebald dogs are rather identified with hinn.
Associations between dogs and jinn prevailed in Arabic literature, but lost its meaning in Persian scriptures.
The wolf is thought of as the natural predator of the jinn, who, in contrast to the jinn by his noble character, blocks their ability to vanish.
Serpents are the animals most associated with jinn. The connection between jinn and serpents are strong enough, that those who believe in jinn fear killing a serpent since a jinn might avenge the murder.
Also some sources speak of killed jinn leaving a carcass similar to either a serpent or a scorpion behind. Both scorpions and serpents have been venerated in the ancient Near East.
Besides serpents, other chthonic animals such as scorpions and lizards are regarded as usual forms of jinn.
Further, gazelles, foxes, dogs and ostriches are associated with jinn. But these are not necessarily thought to be the embodiment of jinn, but rather their mounts i.
The jinn are also related to the wind. They may appear in mists or sandstorms. Accordingly, Tabasi showed him the jinn, seeing them like they were "a shadow on the wall".
A common characteristic of the jinn is their lack of individuality, but they may gain individuality by materializing in human forms,  such as Sakhr and several jinn known from magical writings.
But also in their anthropomorphic shape, they stay partly animal and are not fully human. Therefore, individual jinn are commonly depicted as monstrous and anthropomorphized creatures with body parts from different animals or human with animal traits.
However, since they stay partly animal, their bodies are depicted as fashioned out of two or more different species.
Therefore, a sorcerer may summon a jinn and force him to perform orders. Summoned jinn may be sent to the chosen victim to cause demonic possession.
Such summonings were done by invocation,  by aid of talismans or by satisfying the jinn, thus to make a contract.
Soothsayers reveal information from the past and present; the jinn can be a source of this information because their lifespans exceed those of humans.
Since jinn are afraid of iron, they are unable to remove it with their own power. Seven kings of the Jinn are traditionally associated with days of the week.
Although many passages are damaged, they remain in Ottoman copies. These jinn-kings sometimes afarit instead are invoked to legitimate spells performed by amulets.
During the Rwandan genocide , both Hutus and Tutsis avoided searching local Rwandan Muslim neighborhoods because they widely believed the myth that local Muslims and mosques were protected by the power of Islamic magic and the efficacious jinn.
Beliefs in entities similar to the jinn are found throughout pre-Islamic Middle Eastern cultures.
Lamashtu , also known as Labartu, was a divine demoness said to devour human infants. The description of jinn is almost identical with that of the shedim from Jewish mythology.
As with the jinn, some of whom follow the law brought by Muhammad, some of the shedim are believed to be followers of the law of Moses and consequently good.
Some Jewish sources agree with the Islamic notion that jinn inhabited the world before humans. As in Islam, the idea of spiritual entities converting to one's own religion can be found in Buddhism.
According to lore, Buddha preached to Devas and Asura , spiritual entities who, like humans, are subject to the cycle of life, and who resemble the Islamic notion of jinn, who are also ontologically placed among humans in regard to eschatological destiny.
Some scholars evaluated whether the jinn might be compared to fallen angels in Christian traditions. Comparable to Augustine's descriptions of fallen angels as ethereal, jinn seem to be considered as the same substance.
Although the myth of fallen angels is not absent in the Quran,  the jinn nevertheless differ in their major characteristics from that of fallen angels: While fallen angels fell from heaven, the jinn did not, but try to climb up to it in order to receive the news of the angels.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Several terms redirect here. For other uses, see Jinni disambiguation , Jinn disambiguation , Djinn disambiguation and Genie disambiguation.
Supernatural spirits integrated in Islamic beliefs. See also: Islamic mythology. Main article: Genies in popular culture.
Dols points out that jinn-belief is not a strictly Islamic concept. It rather includes countless elements of idol-worship, as Muhammad's enemies practised in Mecca during jahilliya.
According to F. Meier early Islam integrated many pagan deities into its system by degrading them to spirits.
In Islam, the existence of spirits that are neither angels nor necessarily devils is acknowledged. Thereby Islam is able to incorporate non-biblical[,] non-Quranic ideas about mythic images, that means: a.
Dols macht darauf aufmerksam, dass der Ginn-Glaube kein strikt islamisches Konzept ist. Er beinhaltet vielmehr zahllose Elemente einer Götzenverehrung, wie sie Muhammads Gegner zur Zeit der gahiliyya in Mekka praktizierten.
Meier integrierte der junge Islam bei seiner raschen Expansion viele heidnische Gottheiten in sein System, indem er sie zu Dämonen degradierte.
Im Islam wird die Existenz von Geistern, die weder Engel noch unbedingt Teufel sein müssen, anerkannt.
Damit besitzt der Islam die Möglichkeit, nicht-biblische[,] nicht koranische Vorstellungen von mythischen Vorstellungen sich einzuverleiben, d.
Götter zu Geistern zu erniedrigen und so ins islamische Geisterreich aufzunehmen. Depictions, whose actors are referred to as jinn are generally located apart from Judeo-Christian traditions.
Oxford Dictionaries — English. Archived from the original on 8 April Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic 4 ed. Urbana, Illinois: Spoken Language Services.
I, , p. Fee, Jeffrey B. Spencer J. Zeitlin 19 March The Historical Muhammad. Fee , Jeffrey B. London, UK: W.
Retrieved 4 October The World of the Jinn and Devils. Islamic Books. Retrieved 13 March Oxford University Press. Noegel, Brannon M.
Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. Bosworth, E. JSTOR, www. Accessed 10 May Islam Question and Answer. Columbia University Press.
Retrieved 10 December Retrieved 14 March Accessed 6 Feb. It is a powerful account of their attempt to free themselves from a past viewed as inhabited by evil forces and about the encounter between contemporary Salafi reformism and a presumed disappearing religious universe.
It serves to prove how a novel version of Islam has superseded former practices; delegitimized and categorized as belonging to the past.
The story is, however, also an important source and an interesting entry-point to examine the continued relevance of past practices within processes of reform.
Analyzing the story about the jinns and the trajectory of Salafi reform in Bale, this contribution demonstrates how the past remains intersected with present reformism, and how both former practices and novel impetuses are reconfigured through this process.
The article pays attention to the dialectics of negotiations inherent to processes of reform and points to the manner in which the involvement of a range of different actors produces idiosyncratic results.
It challenges notions of contemporary Islamic reform as something linear and fixed and argues that such processes are multifaceted and open-ended.
Transcultural Psychiatry. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry. Lokale Konzeptionen über Geister und Dämonen in der syrischenPeripherie".
Consulted online on 09 January doi : Dictionary of Islam. New York: Columbia University Press, Taurus, Fodor, ed.
Budapest, 10—17 September Universidad de Granada, The Book of Deadly Names. Ishtar Publishing. Accessed 27 Mar. Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations.
The British Museum Press. The Devil Within. Retrieved 23 March Moore, Savary M. Moore p. Al-Ashqar, Dr. Umar Sulaiman Barnhart, Robert K.
The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology. The Oxford English Dictionary. Second edition, Aarne and S.
Belief in jinn was common in early Arabia, where they were thought to inspire poets and soothsayers. Even Muhammad originally feared that his revelations might be the work of jinn.
Their existence was further acknowledged in official Islam , which indicated that they, like human beings, would have to face eventual salvation or damnation.
Jinn, especially through their association with magic, have always been favourite figures in North African, Egyptian, Syrian, Persian, and Turkish folklore and are the centre of an immense popular literature, appearing notably in The Thousand and One Nights.
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